喜马拉雅造山带造山模式探讨

张进江, 王佳敏, 王晓先, 张波. 喜马拉雅造山带造山模式探讨[J]. 地质科学, 2013, 48(2): 362-383. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0563-5020.2013.02.004
引用本文: 张进江, 王佳敏, 王晓先, 张波. 喜马拉雅造山带造山模式探讨[J]. 地质科学, 2013, 48(2): 362-383. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0563-5020.2013.02.004
Zhang Jinjiang, Wang Jiamin, Wang Xiaoxian, Zhang Bo. A new model for the Himalayan orogeny[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 2013, 48(2): 362-383. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0563-5020.2013.02.004
Citation: Zhang Jinjiang, Wang Jiamin, Wang Xiaoxian, Zhang Bo. A new model for the Himalayan orogeny[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 2013, 48(2): 362-383. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0563-5020.2013.02.004

喜马拉雅造山带造山模式探讨

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张进江,男,1964年9月生,博士,教授,构造地质学专业。E-mail:zhjj@pku.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P542

A new model for the Himalayan orogeny

  • 喜马拉雅是典型的碰撞型造山带,造山带结构构造复杂,可大致划分为以逆冲推覆构造为主的南喜马拉雅造山带和以各种伸展性构造为主的北喜马拉雅造山带,造山带内各类构造均发生过多期变形,且发生过多次缩短与伸展的构造反转,大喜马拉雅结晶杂岩系(GHC)内变形、岩浆及变质作用证明造山过程中存在渠道流作用。据此,本文提出一种由印度—欧亚大陆汇聚速率控制的多阶段造山模式:两大陆汇聚速度快时,青藏高原内形成南北向裂谷系(NSTR),喜马拉雅内经历造山过程,并在造山带中、下地壳形成作为底部拆离层的塑性层,汇聚速率慢时,青藏高原内形成共轭走滑断裂,喜马拉雅造山带内的塑性层发生松弛和重力扩散,形成渠道流,导致藏南拆离系(STDS)的启动、GHC的挤出和北喜马拉雅片麻岩穹窿(NHGD)的形成。上述的增厚与松弛均是在挤压体制下形成的,构造的反转是因挤压速率变化而产生的结构调节作用。
  • 加载中
  • [1]

    郭 磊,张进江,张 波.2008.北喜马拉雅然巴穹隆的构造、运动学特征、年代学及演化.自然科学进展,18(6): 640—650.

    [2]

    Guo Lei,Zhang Jinjiang and Zhang Bo.2008.Structures,kinematics,thermochronology and tectonic evolution of the Ramba gneiss dome in the northern Himalaya.Progress in Natural Science,18(6): 851—860.

    [3]

    贺日政,高 锐.2003.西藏高原南北向裂谷研究意义.地球物理学进展,18(1): 35—43.

    [4]

    He Rizheng and Gao Rui.2003.Some significances of studying north-southern rift in Tibet Plateau.Progress in Geophysics,18(1): 35—43.

    [5]

    李德威,张雄华,廖群安等.2004.定结县幅、陈塘区幅地质调查新成果及主要进展.地质通报,23(5): 438—443.

    [6]

    Li Dewei,Zhang Xionghua,Liao Qunan et al.2004.New results and main progress in geological survey of the Dinggyê County and Chentang District sheets.Geological Bulletin of China,23(5): 438—443.

    [7]

    李海兵,Franck Valli,刘敦一等.2007.喀喇昆仑断裂的形成时代:锆石SHRIMP U-Pb 年龄的制约.科学通报,52(4): 438—447.

    [8]

    Li Haibing,Franck Valli,Liu Dunyi et al.2007.Initial movement of the Karakorum fault in western Tibet:Constraints from SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons.Chinese Science Bulletin,52(8): 1089—1100.

    [9]

    王二七,王 刚,樊 春等.2006.板块汇聚带的造山和重力垮塌作用及其力学成因:以雅鲁藏布江—喜马拉雅山汇聚带为例.地学前缘,13(4): 18—26.

    [10]

    Wang Erqi,Wang Gang,Fan Chun et al.2006.Orogeny and gravitational collapse along the convergent plate boundary and their mechanical origin:A case study on the Yarlung Tsangpo-Himalaya belt.Earth Science Frontiers,13(4): 18—26.

    [11]

    王晓先,张进江,杨雄英等.2011.藏南吉隆地区早古生代大喜马拉雅片麻岩锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素特征及其地质意义.地学前缘,18(2): 127—139.

    [12]

    Wang Xiaoxian,Zhang Jinjiang,Yang Xiongying et al.2011.Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages,Hf isotopic features and their geological significance of the Greater Himalayan crystalline complex augen gneiss in Gyirong area,south Tibet. Earth Science Frontiers,18(2): 127—139.

    [13]

    王晓先,张进江,刘 江等.2012.中新世中期喜马拉雅造山带构造体制的转换.科学通报,57(33): 3162—3172.

    [14]

    Wang Xiaoxian,Zhang Jinjiang,Liu Jiang et al.2012.Middle-Miocene transformation of tectonic regime in the Himalayan orogen.Chinese Science Bulletin,57(33): 3162—3172.

    [15]

    杨雄英,张进江,戚国伟等.2009.吉隆盆地周缘构造变形特征及藏南拆离系启动年龄.中国科学(D辑),39(8): 1128—1139.

    [16]

    Yang Xiongying,Zhang Jinjiang,Qi Guowei et al.2009.Structure and deformation around the Gyirong Basin,north Himalaya,and onset of the south Tibetan detachment.Science in China(Series D),52(8): 1046—1058.

    [17]

    张进江,丁 林,钟大赉等.1999.喜马拉雅平行于造山带伸展——是垮塌的标志还是挤压隆升过程的产物?科学通报,44(19): 2031—2036.

    [18]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Ding Lin,Zhong Dalai et al.2000.Orogen-parallel extension in Himalaya:Is it the indicator of collapse or the product in process of compressive uplift?Chinese Science Bulletin,45(2): 114—119.

    [19]

    张进江,郭 磊,丁 林.2002.申扎—定结正断层体系中/南段构造特征及其与藏南拆离系的关系.科学通报,47(10): 38—43.

    [20]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Guo Lei and Ding Lin.2002.Structural characteristics of middle and southern Xainza-Dinggye normal fault system and its relationship to southern Tibetan detachment system.Chinese Science Bulletin,47(10): 1063—069.

    [21]

    张进江,丁 林.2003a.青藏高原东西向伸展及其地质意义.地质科学,38(2): 179—189.

    [22]

    Zhang Jinjiang and Ding Lin.2003a.East-west extension in Tibetan Plateau and its significance to tectonic evolution.Chinese Journal of Geology,38(2): 179—189.

    [23]

    张进江,季建清,钟大赉等.2003b.东喜马拉雅南迦巴瓦构造结的构造格局及形成过程探讨.中国科学(D辑),33(4): 373—383.

    [24]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Ji Jianqing, Zhong Dalai et al.2004.Structural pattern of eastern Himalayan syntaxis in Namjagbarwa and its formation process.Science in China(Series D),47(2): 138—150.

    [25]

    张进江,钟大赉,桑海清等.2006.哀牢山—红河构造带古新世以来多期活动的构造和年代学证据.地质科学,41(2): 291—310.

    [26]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Zhong Dalai,Sang Haiqing et al.2006.Structural and geochronological evidence for multiple episodes of deformation since Paleocene along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone,southeastern Asia.Chinese Journal of Geology,41(2): 291—310.

    [27]

    张进江, 2007.北喜马拉雅及藏南伸展构造综述.地质通报,26(6): 639—649.

    [28]

    Zhang Jinjiang.2007.A review on extensional structures in northern Himalya and southern Tibet.Geological Bulletin of China,26(6): 639—649.

    [29]

    张进江,郭 磊,张 波.2007.北喜马拉雅穹隆带雅拉香波穹隆的构造组成和运动学特征.地质科学,42(1): 16—30.

    [30]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Guo Lei and Zhang Bo.2007.Structure and kinematics of the Yalashangbo dome in the northern Himalayan dome belt,China.Chinese Journal of Geology,42(1): 16—30.

    [31]

    张进江,杨雄英,戚国伟等.2011.马拉山穹窿的活动时限及其在藏南拆离系—北喜马拉雅片麻岩穹窿形成机制的应用.岩石学报,27(12): 3535—3544.

    [32]

    Zhang Jinjiang,Yang Xiongying,Qi Guowei et al.2011.Geochronology of the Malashan dome and its application in formation of the Southern Tibet Detachment System (STDS) and Northern Himalayan Gneiss Domes (NHGD).Acta Petrologica Sinica,27(12): 3535—3544.

    [33]

    Alkmim F F and Marshak S.1998.Transamazonian orogeny in the southern Sao Francisco craton region,Minas Gerais,Brazil:Evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero.Precambrian Research,90(1): 29—58.

    [34]

    Aoya M,Wallis S R,Kawakami T et al.2006.The Malashan gneiss dome in south Tibet:Comparative study with the Kangmar dome with special reference to kinematics of deformation and origin of associated granites.Geological Society of London,Special Publication,268: 471—495.

    [35]

    Argand E.1924.La Tectonique de lAsie,Compte-rendu du 13econgrès Géologique International,Brussel.171—372.

    [36]

    Bai D H,Unsworth M J,Meju M A et al.2010.Crustal deformation of the eastern Tibetan Plateau revealed by magnetotelluric imaging.Nature Geoscience,3: 358—362.

    [37]

    Beaumont C,Jamieson R A,Nguyen M H et al.2001.Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation.Nature,414: 738—742.

    [38]

    Beaumont C,Jamieson R A,Nguyen M H et al.2004.Crustal channel flows: 1.Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen.Journal of Geophysical Research,109: B06406,doi∶10.1029/2003JB002809.

    [39]

    Bird P.1991.Lateral extrusion of lower crust from under high topography,in the isostatic limit.Journal of Geophysical Research,96: 10275—10286.

    [40]

    Blisniuk P M,Hacker B R,Glodny J et al.2001.Normal faulting in central Tibet since at least 13.5 Myr ago.Nature,412: 628—632.

    [41]

    [JP3]Burchfiel B C and Royden L H.1985.North-south extension within the convergent Himalayan region.Geology,13(10): 679—682.

    [42]

    Burchfiel B C,Chen Z L,Hodges K V et al.1992.The south Tibetan detachment system,Himalaya orogen:Extension contemporaneous with and parallel to shortening in a collisional mountain belt.Geological Society of America,Special Paper,269: 1—41.

    [43]

    Burg J P,Brunel M,Gapais D et al.1984.Deformation of leucogranites of the crystalline main central sheet in southern Tibet(China).Journal of Structural Geology,6(5): 535—542.

    [44]

    Cao S Y,Liu J L,Leiss B et al.2011.Oligo-Miocene shearing along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone:Constraints from structural analysis and zircon U/Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks in the Diancang Shan massif,SE Tibet,China.Gondwana Research,19(4): 975—993.

    [45]

    Carosi R,Lombardo B,Molli G et al.1998.The south Tibetan detachment system in the Rongbuk valley,Everest region.Deformation features and geological implications.Journal of Asian Earth Science,16(2—3): 299—311.

    [46]

    Carosi R,Montomoli C,Rubatto D et al.2010.Late Oligocene high-temperature shear zones in the core of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines(Lower Dolpo,western Nepal).Tectonics,29(4):doi: 10.1029/2008TC002400.

    [47]

    Celal ?engör A M C.1990.Plate-tectonics and orogenic research after 25 years:A Tethyan perspective.Earth-Science Reviews,27(1—2): 1—201.

    [48]

    Chemenda A Ⅰ,Burg J P and Mattauer M.2000.Evolution model of the Himalaya-Tibet system:Geopoem:Based on new modelling,geological and geophysical data.Earth and Planetary Science Letters,174(3—4): 397—409.

    [49]

    Chen Z,Liu Y,Hodges K V et al.1990.The Kangmar dome:A metamorphic core complex in southern Xizang(Tibet).Science,250(4987): 1552—1556.

    [50]

    Clark M K,Bush J W M and Royden L H.2005.Dynamic topography produced by lower crustal flow against rheological strength heterogeneities bordering the Tibetan Plateau.Geophysical Journal International,162(2): 575—590.

    [51]

    Clark M K and Royden L H.2000.Topographic ooze:Building the eastern margin of Tibet by lower crustal flow.Geology,28(8): 703—706.

    [52]

    Coleman M and Hodges K.1995.Evidence for Tibetan Plateau uplift before 14 Myr ago from a new minimum age for east-west extension.Nature,374: 49—52

    [53]

    Cook K L and Royden L H.2008.The role of crustal strength variations in shaping orogenic plateaus,with application to Tibet.Journal of Geophysical Research,113:B08407,doi∶10.1029/2007JB005457.

    [54]

    Corrie S L and Kohn M J.2011.Metamorphic history of the central Himalaya,Annapurna region,Nepal,and implications for tectonic models.GSA Bulletin,123: 1863—1879.

    [55]

    Cottle J M,Jessup M J,Newell D L et al.2007.Structural insights into the early stages of exhumation along an orogen-scale detachment:The south Tibetan detachment system,Dzakaa Chu section,eastern Himalaya.Journal of Structural Geology,29(11): 1781—1797.

    [56]

    [JP3]Cottle J M,Searle M P,Horstwood M S A et al.2009.Timing of midcrustal metamorphism,melting,and deformation in the Mount Everest region of southern Tibet revealed by U(-Th)-Pb geochronology.Journal of Geology,117(6): 643—664.

    [57]

    Daniel C G,Hollister L S,Parrish R R et al.2003.Exhumation of the main central thrust from lower crustal depths,eastern Bhutan Himalaya.Journal of Metamorphic Geology,21(4): 317—334.

    [58]

    Dewey J F,Cande S and Pitman W C.1989.Tectonic evolution of the India/Eurasia collision zone.Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 82(3): 717—734.

    [59]

    Dewey J F,Shackelton R M,Chang C et al.1988.The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London,Series A,327(1594): 379—413.

    [60]

    Dewey J F.1988.Extensional collapse of orogens.Tectonics,7(6): 1123—1139.

    [61]

    Fraser G,Worley B and Sandiford M.2000.High-precision geothermobarometry across the high Himalayan metamorphic sequence,Langtang Valley,Nepal.Journal of Metamorphic Geology,18(6): 665—681.

    [62]

    Gansser A.1964.The Geology of the Himalayas.New York:Wiley-Interscience.1—289.

    [63]

    Gray R and Pysklywec R N.2012.Geodynamic models of mature continental collision:Evolution of an orogen from lithospheric subduction to continental retreat/delamination.Journal of Geophysical Research,117:B03408,doi∶10.1029/2011JB008692.

    [64]

    Harris N.2007.Channel flow and the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen:A critical review.Journal of the Geological Society,164(3): 511—523.

    [65]

    Harrison T M,Lovera O M and Grove M.1997.New insights into the origin of two contrasting Himalayan granite belts.Geology,25(10): 899—902.

    [66]

    Hodges K V.2000.Tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet from two perspectives.GSA Bulletin,112(3): 324—350.

    [67]

    Holdaway M J and Mukhopadhyay B.1993.A reevaluation of the stability relations of andalusite; thermochemical data and phase diagram for the aluminum silicates.American Mineralogist,78(3—4): 298—315.

    [68]

    Hou Z Q,Gao Y F,Qu X M et al.2004.Origin of adakitic intrusives generated during mid-Miocene east-west extension in southern Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 220(1—2): 139—155.

    [69]

    Imayama T,Takeshita T and Arita K.2010.Metamorphic P-T profile and P-T path discontinuity across the far-eastern Nepal Himalaya:Investigation of channel flow models.Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 28(5): 527—549.

    [70]

    Imayama T,Takeshita T,Yi K et al.2012.Two-stage partial melting and contrasting cooling history within the Higher Himalayan Crystalline Sequence in the far-eastern Nepal Himalaya.Lithos, 134—135: 1—22.

    [71]

    Jamieson R A,Beaumont C,Medvedev S et al.2004.Crustal channel flows: 2.Numerical models with implications for metamorphism in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen.Journal of Geophysical Research,109: B06407,doi∶10.1029/2003JB002811.

    [72]

    Jamieson R A,Beaumont C,Nguyen M H et al.2006.Provenance of the Greater Himalayan Sequence and associated rocks:Predictions of channel flow models.Geological Society of London,Special Publications,268(1): 165—182.

    [73]

    Kapp P,Taylor M,Stockli D et al.2008.Development of active low-angle normal fault systems during orogenic collapse:Insight from Tibet.Geology,36(1): 7—10.

    [74]

    Kellett D A,Grujic D and Erdmann S.2009.Miocene structural reorganization of the south Tibetan detachment,eastern Himalaya:Implications for continental collision.Lithosphere,1(5): 259—281.

    [75]

    Kohn M J.2008.P-T-t data from central Nepal support critical taper and repudiate large scale channel flow of the Greater Himalayan Sequence.GSA Bulletin,120(3—4): 259—273.

    [76]

    Kohn M J,Wieland M S,Parkinson C D et al.2005.Five generations of monazite in Langtang gneisses:Implications for chronology of the Himalayan metamorphic core.Journal of Metamorphic Geology,23(5): 399—406.

    [77]

    Lee J,Hacker B R,Dinklage W S et al.2000.Evolution of the Kangmar Dome,southern Tibet:Structural,petrologic,and thermochronologic constraints.Tectonics,19(5): 872—895.

    [78]

    Lee J,Hacker B and Wang Y.2004.Evolution of north Himalayan gneiss domes:Structural and metamorphic studies in Mabja Dome,southern Tibet.Journal of Structural Geology,26(12): 2297—2316.

    [79]

    Lee J,McClelland W,Wang Y et al.2006.Oligocene-Miocene middle crustal flow in southern Tibet:Geochronology of Mabja Dome.Geological Society of London,Special Publication,268: 445—469.

    [80]

    Lee J and Whitehouse M J.2007.Onset of mid-crustal extensional flow in southern Tibet:Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages.Geology,35(1): 45—48.

    [81]

    Leech M L.2008.Does the Karakoram fault interrupt mid-crustal channel flow in the western Himalaya?Earth and Planetary Science Letters,276(3—4): 314—322.

    [82]

    Liu M and Yang Y Q.2003.Extensional collapse of the Tibetan Plateau:Results of three-dimensional finite element modelling.Journal of Geophysical Research,108(8): 2361,doi: 10.1029/2002JB002248.

    [83]

    Liu Y,Siebel W,Theye T et al.2011.Isotopic and structural constraints on the late Miocene to Pliocene evolution of the Namche Barwa area,eastern Himalayan syntaxis,SE Tibet.Gondwana Research,19(4): 894—909.

    [84]

    Long S and McQuarrie N.2010.Placing limits on channel flow:Insights from the Bhutan Himalaya.Earth and Planetary Science Letters,290(3—4): 375—390.

    [85]

    Maheo G,Leloup P H,Valli F et al.2007.Post 4 Ma initiation of normal faulting in southern Tibet,Constraints from the Kung Co half graben. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256(1—2): 233—243.

    [86]

    Molnar P and Tapponnier P.1978.Active tectonics of Tibet.Journal of Geophysical Research,83(B11): 5361—5375.

    [87]

    Nelson K D,Zhao W,Brown L D et al.1996.Partially molten middle crust beneath southern Tibet:Synthesis of project INDEPTH results. Science,274(5293): 1684—1695.

    [88]

    Quigley M,Yu L J,Liu X H et al.2006.40[KG-*5]Ar/39[KG-*5]Ar thermochronology of the Kampa Dome,southern Tibet:Implications for tectonic evolution of the north Himalayan gneiss domes.Tectonophysics,421: 269—297.

    [89]

    Replumaz A,Negredo A M,Guillot S et al.2010.Multiple episodes of continental subduction during India/Asia convergence:Insight from seismic tomography and tectonic reconstruction.Tectonophysics,483(1—2): 125—134.

    [90]

    Rey P F,Teyssier C and Whitney D L.2010.Limit of channel flow in orogenic plateaux.Lithosphere,2(5): 328—332.

    [91]

    Royden L H,Birchfiel B C,King R W et al.1997.Surface deformation and lower crustal flow in eastern Tibet.Science,276(5313): 788—790.

    [92]

    Sachan H K,Kohn M J,Saxena A et al.2010.The Malari leucogranite,Garhwal Himalaya,northern India:Chemistry,age,and tectonic implications. GSA Bulletin,122(11-12): 1865—1400.

    [93]

    Searle M P.1995.The rise and fall of Tibet.Nature,347: 17—18.

    [94]

    Searle M P and Godin L.2003.The south Tibetan detachment and the Manaslu leucogranite:A structural reinterpretation and restoration of the Annapurna-Manaslu Himalaya,Nepal.Journal of Geology,111(5): 505—523.

    [95]

    Seeber L and Pêcher A.1998.Strain partitioning along the Himalayan arc and the Nanga Parbat antiform.Geology,26(9): 791—794.

    [96]

    Simpson R L,Parrish R R,Searle M P et al.2000.Two episodes of monazite crystallization during metamorphism and crustal melting in the Everest region of the Nepalese Himalaya.Geology,28(5): 403—406.

    [97]

    Spear F S,Kohn M J and Cheney J T.1999.P-T paths from anatectic pelites.Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology,134(1): 17—32.

    [98]

    Streule M J,Searle M P,Waters D J et al.2010.Metamorphism,melting,and channel flow in the Greater Himalayan Sequence and Makalu leucogranite:Constraints from thermobarometry,metamorphic modeling,and U-Pb geochronology.Tectonics,29(5):doi: 10.1029/2009 TC002533.

    [99]

    Taylor M,Yin A,Ryerson F J et al.2003.Conjugate strike-slip faulting along the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone accommodates coeval east-west extension and north-south shortening in the interior of the Tibet Plateau.Tectonics,22(4): 1044,doi: 10.1029/2002TC001361.

    [100]

    Van Hinsbergen D J J,Steinberger B, Doubrovine P et al.2011.Acceleration and deceleration of India-Asia convergence since the Cretaceous:Roles of mantle plumes and continental collision. Journal of Geophysical Research,116:B06101,doi∶10.1029/2010JB008051.

    [101]

    [JP3]Wang Q,Wyman D A,Li Z X et al.2010.Eocene north-south trending dikes in central Tibet:New constraints on the timing of east-west extension with implications for early plateau uplift?Earth and Planetary Science Letters,298(1—2): 205—216.

    [102]

    Wang X X,Zhang J J,Santosh M et al.2012. Andean-type orogeny in the Himalayas of south Tibet:Implications for early Paleozoic tectonics along the Indian margin of Gondwana.Lithos, 154: 248—262

    [103]

    White L H and Lister G S.2012.The collision of India with Asia.Journal of Geodynamics, 56—57: 7—17.

    [104]

    Williams H,Turner S,Kelley S et al.2001.Age and composition of dikes in southern Tibet:New constraints on the timing of east-west extension and its relationship to postcollisional volcanism.Geology,29(4): 339—342.

    [105]

    Wu C D,Nelson K D,Wortman G et al.1998.Yadong cross structure and south Tibetan Detachment in the east central Himalaya(89°~90°E).Tectonics,17(1): 28—45.

    [106]

    Yin A,Harrison T M,Ryerson F J et al.1994.Tertiary structural evolution of the Gangdese thrust system,southeastern Tibet.Journal of Geophysical Research,99(B9): 18175—18201.

    [107]

    Yin A,Harrison T M,Murphy M A et al.1999.Tertiary deformation history of southeastern and southwestern Tibet during the Indo-Asian collision.GSA Bulletin,111(11): 1644—1664.

    [108]

    Yin A.2000.Mode of Cenozoic east-west extension in Tibet suggesting a common origin of rifts in Asia during the Indo-Asian collision.Journal of Geophysical Research,105(B9): 21745—21759.

    [109]

    Yin A and Harrison T M.2000.Geologic evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen.Annual Review,Earth and Planetary Science Letters,28: 211—280.

    [110]

    Yin A.2006.Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogeny as constrained by along-strike variation of structural geometry,exhumation history,and foreland sedimentation.Earth-Science Review,76(1—2): 1—131.

    [111]

    Yin A.2010.Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Asia:A preliminary synthesis.Tectonophysics,488(1—4): 293—325.

    [112]

    Yin A,Dubey C S,Kelty T K et al.2010.Geologic correlation of the Himalayan orogen and Indian craton:Part 2.Structural geology,geochronology,and tectonic evolution of the eastern Himalaya. GSA Bulletin,122(3—4): 360—395.

    [113]

    Zeng L S,Liu J,Gao L E et al.2009.Early Oligocene anatexis in the Yardoi gneiss dome,southern Tibet and geological implications.Chinese Science Bulletin,54(1): 104—112.

    [114]

    Zeng L S,Gao L E,Xie K J et al.2011.Mid-Eocene high Sr/Y granites in the northern Himalayan Gneiss Domes:Melting thickened lower continental crust.Earth and Planetary Science Letters,303(3—4): 251—266.

    [115]

    Zhang B,Zhang J J and Zhong D L.2010.Structure,kinematics and ages of transpression during strain-partitioning in the Chongshan shear zone,western Yunnan,China.Journal of Structural Geology,32(4): 445—463.

    [116]

    Zhang H F,Harris N,Parrish R et al.2004.U-Pb ages of Kude and Sajia leucogranites in Saffia dome from north Himalaya and their geological implications.Chinese Science Bulletin,49(19): 2087—2092.

    [117]

    Zhang J J and Guo L.2007.Structure and geochronology of the southern Xainza-Dinggye rift and its relationship to the south Tibetan detachment system.Journal of Asian Earth Science,29(5—6): 722—736.

    [118]

    Zhang J J,Santosh M,Wang X X et al.2012.Tectonics of the northern Himalaya since the India-Asia collision.Gondwana Research,21(4): 939—960.

    [119]

    Zhao W L and Morgan W J.1987.Injection of Indian crust into Tibetan lower crust:A two-dimensional finite element model study.Tectonics,6(4): 489—504.

    [120]

    Zheng Y D,Wang T,Ma M et al.2004.Maximum effective moment criterion and the origin of low-angle normal faults.Journal of Structural Geology,26(2): 271—285.

    [121]

    Zheng Y D,Wang T and Wang X S.2006.The Maximum Effective Moment Criterion(MEMC)and its implications in structural geology.Acta Geologica Sinica,80(1): 70—78.

    [122]

    Zheng Y D,Wang E,Zhang J J et al.2011.A challenge to the concept of slip-lines in extrusion tectonics.Geoscience Frontiers,2(1): 23—34.

  • 加载中
计量
  • 文章访问数:  4399
  • PDF下载数:  5606
  • 施引文献:  0
出版历程
收稿日期:  2012-11-16
修回日期:  2012-12-25
刊出日期:  2013-04-25

目录