西伯利亚特罗伊茨卡亚季节性古营地遗址研究

武仙竹, 哈连维奇·弗拉基米尔, 阿给莫娃·伊莲娜. 西伯利亚特罗伊茨卡亚季节性古营地遗址研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2017, 37(4): 805-812. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2017.04.13
引用本文: 武仙竹, 哈连维奇·弗拉基米尔, 阿给莫娃·伊莲娜. 西伯利亚特罗伊茨卡亚季节性古营地遗址研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2017, 37(4): 805-812. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2017.04.13
武仙竹, 哈连维奇·弗拉基米尔, 阿给莫娃·伊莲娜. 西伯利亚特罗伊茨卡亚季节性古营地遗址研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2017, 37(4): 805-812. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2017.04.13 Wu Xianzhu, Харевич В М, Акимова Е В. RESEARCH ON AN SEASONAL ANCIENT CAMP SITE AT ТРОИЦКАЯ, SIBERIA[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2017, 37(4): 805-812. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2017.04.13
Citation: Wu Xianzhu, Харевич В М, Акимова Е В. RESEARCH ON AN SEASONAL ANCIENT CAMP SITE AT ТРОИЦКАЯ, SIBERIA[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2017, 37(4): 805-812. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2017.04.13

西伯利亚特罗伊茨卡亚季节性古营地遗址研究

  • 基金项目:

    重庆市社会科学规划项目"长江三峡地区旧石器文化资源及价值研究"(批准号:2016YBLS102)资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    武仙竹  男  51岁  教授  古人类学与科技考古学专业  E-mail:the168@126.com

  • 中图分类号: Q915.876;K876.2;K878

RESEARCH ON AN SEASONAL ANCIENT CAMP SITE AT ТРОИЦКАЯ, SIBERIA

  • 特罗伊茨卡亚遗址位于俄罗斯中西伯利亚南部,处于北冰洋水系最大河流叶尼塞河中游右岸的二级阶地,是大型江河中游地形开阔的平缓阶地,地理坐标为55°10'46"N,92°04'50"E。遗址中出土有以石片为原型(毛坯),使用锤击法单层打击加工,生产出以小型凸刃刮削器为主体的石制品组合。遗址距今时代为27ka。遗址出土的哺乳动物骨骼化石,其动物种类全部属于梅花鹿(Cervus nippon)。动物骨骼化石均比较破碎,但可代表梅花鹿主要肢体的残骸化石均有,唯独缺少了鹿角。梅花鹿遗骸的综合分析工作,显示该遗址是在春季中期至夏季初期(4~6月)鹿角脱落时节,古人类利用梅花鹿过冬之后集群于近水盐碱地舔舐盐碱的生活规律,设计了有目的的专业狩猎计划。该遗址古人类捕猎活动,是针对梅花鹿而进行的规模性捕猎生产。遗址中所出土骨骼化石具有严重破碎的特征,反映该地点古人类对动物资源开发和利用非常重视,从获取兽肉、提取动物骨髓等多方面,进行生活资料的提取和利用。遗址古居民非常重视对动物资源深层次利用的生活行为,反映当时人类具有很精细的生计开发思维。遗址中出土的石制品器型都比较小,与中国北方以狩猎采集经济为主的石片石器文化类似。特罗伊茨卡亚遗址与我国北方区域较为接近,是西伯利亚地区旧石器时代晚期以狩猎梅花鹿为经济生产的季节性古营地。该地点埋藏特点和古人类行为模式的研究,有助于我们理解中国境内相关类型遗址研究。同时,在深入分析亚洲古人类文化交流、古人类体质进化及对寒冷环境的适应性等方面亦具有重要研究意义。

  • 加载中
  • 图 1 

    特罗伊茨卡亚遗址地理位置图

    Figure 1. 

    Geographical location of Троицкая site

    图 2 

    特罗伊茨卡亚遗址地貌、剖面及代表器物

    Figure 2. 

    Physiognomy, cultural layers and typical artifacts of Троицкая site. (a), (c) and (d) are unearthed stone scraper, (b)site landform, (e)excavation section

    图 3 

    特罗伊茨卡亚遗址部分动物遗骸

    Figure 3. 

    Some animal remains from Троицкая site

    表 1 

    梅花鹿颊齿数据测量(mm)

    Table 1. 

    Measurements of Sika buccal teeth(mm)

    测量项目 田园洞遗址[8] 现生标本[8] 特罗伊茨卡亚遗址
    M1~M3长度 48.5 51 51
    m1~m3长度 57~60 57 58
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    梅花鹿牙齿统计

    Table 2. 

    Statistics of Sika teeth

    名称/部位 DP2
    (dp2)
    DP3
    (dp3)
    DP4
    (dp4)
    P2
    (p2)
    P3
    (p3)
    P4
    (p4)
    M1
    (m1)
    M2
    (m2)
    M3
    (m3)
    1 3 2 2 3 5 3 5 2
    0 2 2 2 5 4 6 7 2
    1 1 2 3 4 6 7 5 3
    1 0 0 2 2 1 5 4 2
    备注 不能辨别的牙齿碎片27件
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1]

    Zhang Yue, Wang Chunxue, Zhang Shuangquan et al. A zooarchaeological study of bone assemblages from the Ma'anshan paleolithic site. Science China:Earth Sciences, 2010, 53 (3):395~402 doi: 10.1007/s11430-009-0153-5

    [2]

    武仙竹, 裴树文, 吴秀杰等.湖北郧西白龙洞遗址初步研究.人类学学报, 2009, 28 (1):1~15 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200901001.htm

    Wu Xianzhu, Pei Shuwen, Wu Xiujie et al. A preliminary study of the Bailong cave paleoanthropological site in Yunxi County, Hubei Province. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 2009, 28 (1):1~15 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200901001.htm

    [3]

    王运辅, 武仙竹, 裴树文等.湖北郧西黄龙洞骨化石表面改造痕迹研究.第四纪研究, 2008, 28 (6):1034~1041 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8887.shtml

    Wang Yunfu, Wu Xianzhu, Pei Shuwen et al. Research on bone surface modifications from Huanglongdong cave site, in Hubei Province. Quaternary Sciences, 2008, 28 (6):1034~1041 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8887.shtml

    [4]

    Yaroslav V Kuzmin. Mammalian fauna from Palaeolithic sites in the upper Yenisei River Basin(Southern Siberia):Review of the current zooarchaeological evidence. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 2011, 21 (2):218~228 doi: 10.1002/oa.v21.2

    [5]

    阿芙洛娃H A主编. 克拉斯诺亚尔斯克地区考古学和第四纪沉积地层. 克拉斯诺亚尔斯克: 白金出版社, 2007. 84~117(in Russian)

    Afaluowa H A. ed. Krasnoyarsk Archaeology and Quaternary Sedimentary Reservoir. Krasnoyarsk:Platinum Press, 2007. 84~117

    [6]

    董为, 金昌柱, 郑龙亭等.安徽芜湖金盆洞旧石器遗址的偶蹄类.人类学学报, 2006, 25 (2):161~171 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200602008.htm

    Dong Wei, Jin Changzhu, Zheng Longting et al. Artiodactylia from the Jinpendong site in Wuhu, Anhui Province. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 2006, 25 (2):161~171 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200602008.htm

    [7]

    董为, 姜鹏.记吉林集安仙人洞的鹿类化石——兼述我国斑鹿化石的分类.古脊椎动物学报, 1993, 31 (2):117~131 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GJZD199302006.htm

    Dong Wei, Jiang Peng. The Late Pleistocene Cervoidea(Artiodactyla)from Xianren Cave, Ji'an, Jilin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1993, 31 (2):117~131 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-GJZD199302006.htm

    [8]

    同号文, 刘金毅, 张双权.周口店田园洞大中型哺乳动物记述.人类学学报, 2004, 23 (3):213~223 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200403004.htm

    Tong Haowen, Liu Jinyi, Zhang Shuangquan. Large mammal fossils from the Tianyuan Cave, a human fossil site of End-Pleistocene age recently discovered near Zhoukoudian. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 2004, 23 (3):213~223 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB200403004.htm

    [9]

    吴逸群, 史秀超, 安锋利等.梅花鹿的生态生物学研究进展.中国林副特产, 2011, (3):168~179 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CTFL201101040.htm

    Wu Yiqun, Shi Xiuchao, An Fengli et al. Research progress of eco-biology of Sika Deer Cervus nippon. Forest By-Product and Speciality in China, 2011, (3):168~179 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-CTFL201101040.htm

    [10]

    Петрошов В В著, 吕永兴译. 霍漂尔保护区梅花鹿的形态特征. 特产科学实验, 1979, (1): 40~46 http://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?filename=tcya197901011&dbname=CJFD&dbcode=CJFQ

    Петрошов В В, translated by Lü Yongxing. Morphology Huopiaoll protected area Sika Deer. Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Research, 1979, (1):40~46

    [11]

    Sergey A Vasilev, Vladimir A Semenov. Prehistory of the upper Yenisei area(Southern Siberia). Journal of World Prehistory, 1993, 7 (2):213~242 doi: 10.1007/BF00975451

    [12]

    武仙竹, 王运辅, 周乐鹏等.白龙洞古人类遗址三维数字模型的建立与初步分析.第四纪研究, 2010, 30 (2):402~409 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8531.shtml

    Wu Xianzhu, Wang Yunfu, Zhou Lepeng et al. Three-dimensional digital models of Bailong cave site, Hubei Province, China and their applicability. Quaternary Sciences, 2010, 30 (2):402~409 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8531.shtml

    [13]

    秦岭, 付稻镰(Dorina Q Fuller), 张海.早期农业聚落的野生食物资源域研究——以长江下游和中原地区为例.第四纪研究, 2010, 30 (2):245~261 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8515.shtml

    Qin Ling, Fuller Dorina Q, Zhang Hai. Modelling wild food resource catchments amongst early farmers:Case studies from the lower Yangtze and Central China. Quaternary Sciences, 2010, 30 (2):245~261 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8515.shtml

    [14]

    陈胜前.中国北方晚更新世人类的适应变迁与辐射.第四纪研究, 2006, 26 (4):522~533 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8666.shtml

    Chen Shengqian. Environment adaptation and diffusion of North China humans in Late Pleistocene. Quaternary Sciences, 2006, 26 (4):522~533 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8666.shtml

    [15]

    张森水.周口店遗址志.北京:北京出版社, 2004. 233~235

    Zhang Senshui. Zhoukoudian Site. Beijing:Beijing Publishing Company, 2004. 233~235

    [16]

    Tong Haowen, Shang Hong, Zhang Shuangquan et al. A preliminary report on the newly found Tianyuan Cave, a Late Pleistocene human fossil site near Zhoukoudian. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2004, 49 (8):853~857 doi: 10.1007/BF02889760

    [17]

    郭延蜀, 郑惠珍.中国梅花鹿地史分布、种和亚种的划分及演化历史.兽类学报, 2000, 20 (3):168~179 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SLXX200003001.htm

    Guo Yanshu, Zheng Huizhen. On the geological distribution, taxonomic status of species and evolutionary history of Sika Deer in China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 2000, 20 (3):168~179 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SLXX200003001.htm

    [18]

    陈全家.郑州西山遗址出土动物遗存研究.考古学报, 2006, (3):385~418 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KGXB200603004.htm

    Chen Quanjia. A study of the faunal remains from the Xishan site in Zhengzhou. Acta Archaeologica Sinica, 2006, (3):385~418 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KGXB200603004.htm

    [19]

    张双权.旧石器遗址动物骨骼表面非人工痕迹研究及其考古学意义.第四纪研究, 2014, 34 (1):131~140 doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2015.01.12 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10855.shtml

    Zhang Shuangquan. Non-human surface modifications to animal bones from Paleolithic sites and their archaeological implications. Quaternary Sciences, 2014, 34 (1):131~140 doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2015.01.12 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10855.shtml

    [20]

    张乐.旧石器人类敲骨吸髓行为的确认——以马鞍山遗址为例.第四纪研究, 2014, 34 (1):141~148 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10856.shtml

    Zhang Yue. The taphonomic study on the marrow extraction behavion of humans in Paleolithic China——An example from the Ma'anshan site, Guizhou Province. Quaternary Sciences, 2014, 34 (1):141~148 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10856.shtml

    [21]

    武仙竹, 李禹阶, 裴树文等.湖北郧西白龙洞遗址骨化石表面痕迹研究.第四纪研究, 2008, 28 (6):1023~1033 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8881.shtml

    Wu Xianzhu, Li Yujie, Pei Shuwen et al. Surface marks on fossil bonesat in Bailong cave site, Yunxi, Hubei. Quaternary Sciences, 2008, 28 (6):1023~1033 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8881.shtml

    [22]

    张森水.丁村54 :100地点石制品研究.人类学学报, 1993, 12 (3):195~213 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB199303000.htm

    Zhang Senshui. A study on the stone artifacts from 54 :100 site in Dingcun region. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 1993, 12 (3):195~213 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB199303000.htm

    [23]

    张森水.管窥新中国旧石器考古学的重大发展.人类学学报, 1999, 18 (3):193~214 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB199903003.htm

    Zhang Senshui. On the important advancements of the Paleolithic archeology in China since 1949. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 18 (3):193~214 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB199903003.htm

    [24]

    裴树文, 牛东伟, 高星等.宁夏水洞沟遗址第7地点发掘报告.人类学学报, 2014, 33 (1):1~16 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB201401001.htm

    Pei Shuwen, Niu Dongwei, Gao Xing et al. A preliminary report on the excavations at Shuidonggou Locality 7 in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, North China. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 2014, 33 (1):1~16 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB201401001.htm

    [25]

    刘武, 高星, 裴树文等.鄂西-三峡地区的古人类资源及相关研究进展.第四纪研究, 2006, 26 (4):514~521 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8695.shtml

    Liu Wu, Gao Xing, Pei Shuwen et al. Research progress of pleoanthropology in west Hubei and the Three Gorges region. Quaternary Sciences, 2006, 26 (4):514~521 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract8695.shtml

    [26]

    武仙竹, 邹厚曦.重庆市穿洞旧石器时代遗址试掘简报.考古, 2016, (6):3~10 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KAGU201606001.htm

    Wu Xianzhu, Zou Houxi. The excavation of the Chuangdong site of the Paleolithic age in Chongqing Municipality. Archaeology, 2016, (6):3~10 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KAGU201606001.htm

    [27]

    施梦以, 武仙竹.浙江萧山跨湖桥遗址动物骨骼表面微痕与人类行为特征.第四纪研究, 2011, 31 (4):723~729 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10522.shtml

    Shi Mengyi, Wu Xianzhu. The microscratch trace of animal bone surface and human behavior study of Kua Hu Qiao site in Xiaoshan district, Zhejiang Province. Quaternary Sciences, 2011, 31 (4):723~729 http://www.dsjyj.com.cn/CN/abstract/abstract10522.shtml

    [28]

    武仙竹.郧西人——黄龙洞遗址发掘报告.北京:科学出版社, 2006. 235~266

    Wu Xianzhu. Yunxi Man——A Report of the Excavation of Huanglongdong Site. Beijing:Science Press, 2006. 235~266

    [29]

    John Wymer. The Palaeolithic Age. New York:St. Martins Press, 1982. 27~76

    [30]

    黄可佳.哈尔滨阎家岗遗址动物骨骼圈状堆积的初步研究.考古学报, 2008, (1):1~13 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KGXB200801001.htm

    Huang Kejia. A preliminary study of the circular heaps of animal bones on the Yanjiagang site in Harbin. Acta Archaeologica Sinica, 2008, (1):1~13 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-KGXB200801001.htm

    [31]

    于汇历, 袁宝印, 黄慰文.哈尔滨阎家岗遗址的地质背景.人类学学报, 2010, 29 (4):445~453 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB201004015.htm

    Yu Huili, Yuan Baoyin, Huang Weiwen. Re-examination of the Yanjiagang Paleolithic Campsite, Northeastern China. Acta Anthropologica Sinica, 2010, 29 (4):445~453 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-RLXB201004015.htm

    [32]

    Richard S Davis. The Enisei River of central Siberia in the Late Pleistocene. Journal of Archaeological Research, 1998, 6 (2):169~194 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02446163

    [33]

    史文娟, 汪志荣, 沈冰等.夹砂层土体构型毛管水上升的实验研究.水土保持学报, 2004, 18 (6):167~170 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-TRQS200406041.htm

    Shi Wenjuan, Wang Zhirong, Shen Bing et al. Soil capillary water upward movement from sand layered soil column. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2004, 18 (6):167~170 http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-TRQS200406041.htm

  • 加载中

(3)

(2)

计量
  • 文章访问数:  1709
  • PDF下载数:  440
  • 施引文献:  0
出版历程
收稿日期:  2017-01-25
修回日期:  2017-05-02
刊出日期:  2017-07-30

目录