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地质科学  1998, Vol. Issue (4): 426-434    DOI:
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长白山天池老虎洞期火山活动地质特征及成因意义
郑祥身1, 许湘希2, 许东满2
1. 中国科学院地质研究所 北京 100029;
2. 吉林省延边朝鲜族自治州地震办公室 延吉 133001
GEOLOGY AND GENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LAOHUDONG STAGE ACTIVITY OF TIANCHI VOLCANO, CHANGBAISHAN AREA,CHINA
Zheng Xianshen1, Xu Xiangxi2, Xu Dongman2
1. Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029;
2. Seismology Office of Yanbian Korea Autonomous, Jilin Province, Yanji, 13301
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摘要 长白山天池火山老虎洞期火山活动发生在更新世晚期白头山组碱性粗面岩喷发之后,火山活动的产物主要为玄武岩质火山碎屑岩和少量玄武岩质或粗面岩质熔岩;老虎洞组火山岩的稀土元素地球化学特征介于早期玄武岩和气象站组碱流岩两者之间,将二者有机地联系在一起,使整个天池火山岩的演化趋势更加清晰。老虎洞组火山岩的存在充分证明了天池火山的粗面岩类与该区早期的大量玄武岩具有成因联系。长白山天池火山活动的成因并非简单地用西太平洋板块的俯冲作用所能解释的。
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郑祥身
许湘希
许东满
关键词天池   火山活动   地质特征   长白山     
Abstract: Tianchi volcano in Changbaishan Mountains is the most famous one in China.The huge volcanic cone of the Tianchi volcano was formed at least by 6 stages of eruptions of basalt and alkali trachyte from the Miocene to the Late Pleistocene.The Miocene basaltic lava conformed the base of the Changbaishan Mountains.The Late Pliocene basalt constructed the shield base for Tianchi volcano.The huge cone was composed of middle to Late Pleistocene alkali trachyte and pantellerite.Activities of the Tianchi volcano during the Holocene have resulted in strong explosion and devastating hazards. The most important activity of the Tianchi volcano in the Holocene is the additional eruption of some basaltic lava and scorias of Laohudong stage(LHD).It is of a central eruption and remained several small cones scattering on the slope of the main volcano,about 3-4 km far away from the crater.In the Laohudong volcano section interbedded basaltic lava and scoria and few trachyte overlie the alkali trachyte base of the Tianchi volcanic cone,indicating that the eruption could be later than the Late Pleistocene and implying that the volcanic activities and the magmatism progress of the Tianchi volcano might be more complex than that suggested before. The discovery of LHD volcanic rocks provides new evidence for the generation and evolution of the Tianchi volcanic rocks.The REE contents of LHD basalt and quartz trachyte are compatible to that of the Miocene to Late Pleistocene basaltic rocks in Changbaishan area and the trachyte of the Tianchi volcano distinctively.From the REE chondrite-normalized patterns,it can be seen that the REE of all samples are gradually enriched with the positive Eu anomaly slightly decreasing in basaltic rocks and the negative Eu sharply depleting from trachyte to pantellerite.Therefore,the LHD rocks should represent and link the basaltic with the evolved magma. The generation process of the rocks in the Tianchi volcano and in Changbaishan area has been discussed by using the Ce/Yb-Ce and La/Sm-La diagrams.On these two correlation diagrams,all basalt plots including LHD are distributed along a partial melting trend,and the plots of trachyte and pantellerite set around a horizontal line,implying that the basaltic rocks from different eruptions were derived from a same magma source by parting melting of mantle material,then transferred to fractional crystallization from basalt through trachyte to pantellerite. Major and trace element discriminations indicate that the basaltic rocks in Changbaishan area have relations to ocean island alkali basalt or ocean flood basalt,instead of an island arc basalt environment,whereas the trachy and pantelleritic rocks were within plate region or anorogenic region.These results are much different from that discussed with the subduction of West Pacific Plate before.Therefore,the tectonic genetic process involved in the formation of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks and the activity of the Tianchi volcano was not related directly to the subduction and a comparative research with the volcanic rocks in the Cheju Island of Korea might be necessary.
Key wordsTianchi volcano   Volcanic activity   Geology   Changbaishan   
收稿日期: 1997-08-19;
引用本文:   
郑祥身,许湘希,许东满. 1998, 长白山天池老虎洞期火山活动地质特征及成因意义. 地质科学, (4): 426-434.
Zheng Xianshen,Xu Xiangxi,Xu Dongman. GEOLOGY AND GENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LAOHUDONG STAGE ACTIVITY OF TIANCHI VOLCANO, CHANGBAISHAN AREA,CHINA[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 1998, (4): 426-434.
 
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