The chordata affinity of conodonts has been accepted with the discovery of conodont animals from the Ordovician Soom Shale in South Africa. Fortunately, in the wake of finding both Haikouella and Yunnanzoon with only simple cone like dental structures from the Chengjiang Fauna, it is timely to reconsider the Protoconodont-bearers from the lowest Cambrian (Meishucunian Stage). Except for common Protohertzina spp.and relative genera, the compound type Protocanthocodylodus simoni Chen, 1999, with three discrete denticles is most remarkable for the complex morphological features. The morphology, histology and chemical composition of the abundant protoconodonts from the Meishucunian are well studied marking the onset of endoskeletonization in Metazoans. The probability is the Protoconodonts being the earliest representatives of chordata, even possibly vertebrate, or their common ancestor, in age of 545 Ma.