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地质科学  2009, Vol. 44 Issue (4): 1289-1311    DOI:
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冈底斯—喜马拉雅碰撞造山带前陆盆地系统及构造演化
丁林1 蔡福龙1 张清海1 张利云1 许强1 杨迪1 刘德亮1 钟大赉2
1.中国科学院青藏高原研究所北京100085; |2.中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所北京 |100029
Provenance and tectonic evolution of the foreland basin 
systems in the GandeseHimalayan collisional orogen belt
Ding Lin, Cai Fulong,Zhang Qinhai,Zhang Liyun, Xu Qiang Yang Di, Liu Deliang
1.Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research|Chinese Academy of Sciences| Beijing 100085; 
2.Institute of Geology and Geophysics|Chinese Academy of Sciences| Beijing |100029
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摘要 

碰撞带前陆盆地的建立是大陆碰撞的直接标志和随后造山带构造变形的忠实记录。本文对欧亚板块与印度板块碰撞前后发育在拉萨地块上的冈底斯弧背前陆盆地,同碰撞产生的雅鲁藏布江周缘前陆盆地,以及碰撞后陆内变形产生的喜马拉雅前陆盆地的沉积地层演化以及碎屑锆石物源特征等进行了系统分析,结合前人及我们近些年的研究成果,认为冈底斯岛弧北侧发育一个典型的弧背前陆盆地系统而不是以前普遍接受的伸展盆地。除传统认为的喜马拉雅前陆盆地系统外,在碰撞造山带中还发育一个雅鲁藏布江前陆盆地系统,它是欧亚板块与印度板块碰撞以后,欧亚板块加载到印度被动大陆边缘产生的典型周缘前陆盆地。上述2个造山带前陆盆地系统的识别,大大提高了对新特提斯洋俯冲、碰撞过程的认识。造山带前陆盆地证据指示,新特提斯洋至少于140 Ma以前就已开始俯冲, 110 Ma俯冲速度开始提高,在65 Ma前后印度大陆与欧亚大陆发生碰撞,喜马拉雅山于40 Ma开始隆升,其剥蚀物质大量堆积在喜马拉雅前陆盆地中。

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关键词青藏高原    大陆碰撞    前陆盆地    沉积地层    碎屑锆石物源     
Abstract

The formation of peripheral foreland basin may provide a straightway estimate for the initiation age of the continental collision and record robust the following tectonic evolution of the orogen. In this study,we focus on three foreland basin systems related to the IndiaAsia collision,from north to south,these include the Gangdese retroarc foreland basin,Tsangpo peripheral foreland basin and the southern Himalaya Siwalik foreland basin respectively,which developed during pre,syn and post collision between the Asian plate and the Indian plate. A synthetic analysis of sedimentary strata and detrital zircon provenance in each foreland basin system are presented here. It is suggested that there is a retroarc foreland basin located along the entire length of the northern Gangdese arc,rather than an extensional basin widely accepted by previous researchers. It is also popularly received that there is a peripheral foreland basin located along the entire length of the sub Himalaya as result of flexual loading of the high Himalaya. The foreland sediments are composed of upper OligoMiocene and younger alluvial strata and the lower PaleoceneEocene Marine strata. The upper part deposits in the foredeep depozone,and the lower one deposits in the backbulge depozone may belong to a foreland basin in the northern of Himalaya. Compare with the almost continuous intact Gangdese retroarc and Siwalik foreland basin,the newly found syncollision Yalutsangpo foreland basin was fragmented by the Hiamalayan foldthrust systems,which composed of many small relic basins scattered in the Tethyan Himalaya and less Himalaya synclines,such as SagaGangzi Basin,GangbaDingri Basin,Central Nepal Basin and Siang valley basin. The research progresses on the three above foreland basins in the GangdeseHimalayan orogen belt enormously promote our understanding about the subduction processes of the NeoTethys Ocean and the following collision between India and Asia. The development of the Gangdese retroarc foreland basin and related thrust belt during~140~90 Ma caused shortening and possibly an uplift response to crustal thickening in Gangdese arc; the Tsangpo foreland basin provides an estimate for the initiation age of the IndoAsian collision in south central Tibet at~65 Ma; and the Himalayan foreland basin constrains the Himalayan orogen began to rise at least from 40 Ma ago,which resulting in rapid erosion in the mountain and related clastic accumulation in the foredeep depozone.

Key wordsTibetan Plateau   Continental collision   Foreland basin   Deposit strata   Detrital zircon provenance   
收稿日期: 2009-08-16; 出版日期: 2009-10-25
引用本文:   
. 2009, 冈底斯—喜马拉雅碰撞造山带前陆盆地系统及构造演化. 地质科学, 44(4): 1289-1311.
. Provenance and tectonic evolution of the foreland basin 
systems in the GandeseHimalayan collisional orogen belt[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 2009, 44(4): 1289-1311.
 
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