The tectonic-paleogeographic evolution is of significant role in the basin analysis and oil/gas resource evaluation. Together with the paleotectonic restoration and regional geological data, Tarim Basin has experienced five-stages tectonic evolution: basement formation stage, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran strong extension-compression stage, Cambrian-Ordovician weak extension-strong compression stage, Silurian-Cretaceous fluctuation and migration stage, and Cenozoic weak extension-strong compression stage. NE trending narrow continental rifts developed in the Cryogenian-Ediacaran, which were different from the Phanerozoic Tarim intracratonic basin. Two large carbonate platforms clipped one intra-basin developed stably in the Cambrian-Early Ordovician from east to west. Due to the transition from a divergent to convergent southern margin, isolated carbonate platforms from south to north formed in the Late Ordovician. Silurian-Devonian turned to deposition of marine clastic rocks in inner cratonic depression. The Carboniferous-Permian deposited shallow marine-terrestrial of intracratonic siliciclastic rocks and carbonate rocks. A series of separated intraplate depressions, following frequent depositional changes of terrigenous siliciclastic rocks, developed in the Mesozoic Tarim. Cenozoic foreland basins formed along the margins of the Tarim with thick terrigenous molasse deposition, with subsequent deep burial of the basin to form a complex superimposed basin. Impacted by the opening-closing of the Proto-Neo-Tethys oceans and South Tianshan Ocean, and the Cenozoic remote effect from the Indian plate, the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the Tarim Basin has the characteristics of multi-stage collision, multi-type, migration and strong modification, which are different from the typical cratonic basins.