Although undergone more than 20 years exploration by some oil and gas shows, Tanggu Depression has not been gained big discovery in the Tarim Basin. It is assumed as a new depression formed in the end of the Ordovician, or an large inherited trough from Cambrain, in which its initiation and evolution is of great significance for the tectono-paleogeography study in the Tarim Basin and hydrocarbon potential evaluation in Tanggu Depression and it periphery. Through the structural analysis based on the new seismic and drilling data, the evolution and its exploration potential of Tanggu Depression are rescreened with a new perspective. The results show：1） A large basement uplift occurred in the area and its periphery, where the thickness of Cambrian is overlapping and thinner from the north to the south. 2） There is a large area carbonate platform in Lower-Middle Ordovician covering all the area with the similar facies with its periphery, but rather than a large trough. 3） There are two carbonate platform margins along the eastern and western sides, spliting by a large depression with mudstone facies. 4） A series of thrust faults initiated in Late Ordovician, and stronger inherited thrusting in Silurian-Devonian. As a consequence, there are four stages evolution in Tanggu area：1） A carbonate inner platform development stage in Cambrian- Middle Ordovician, having a uniform platform with its periphery in large ares. 2） Depression forming stage after the deposition of Yijianfang Formation in Middle Ordovician and before the deposition of Lianglitage Formation in Late Ordovician, which is the key time for the depression initiation and forming by the subduction and collision of Altyn Ocean from the southeast. 3） The remodification stage by the faults thrusting and denudation in Silurian-Devonian by the persistent compression from the southeast uplift. 4） Stable subsidence stage after Carboniferous. It is indicated that there is a basement palaeo-uplift of inherited development in Late Ordovician-Paleogene in the southwestern area, and there is high quality evaporite caprocks that did not offset by the strong thrust faulting. Hence, rather than the thrust Ordovician blocks for a long term exploration, we proposed that there is better source-reservoir-cap assemblage, and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Lower-Middle Cambrian in the southwestern of Tanggu Depression. And the paleo-highs of Lower Cambrian dolomite reservoirs could be the new breakthrough of exploration. The result indicates that the exploration should pay more attention to the palaeostructure evolution and its match with hydrocarbon accumulation process in spatiotemporal in a strong remodified basin.