In view of the present research situation of domestic big data, this paper points out that science big data has been far behind the network big data and business big data. This paper emphatically analyzes the reason for the big data research falling behind in the earth science field, and introduces initial results in some areas. This paper points out that big data will lead to a profound revolution to science, which is mainly manifested on the changes in the scientific method and scientific ideas, and will cause the change of scientific theory and innovation. It will change the present situation of the scientific research greatly in a short time, enhance the level of scientific development, and change people's perception of the world. It will change the way scientists thinking, shift logical thinking from scientists to relevant ways of thinking from the scientific fact itself provides, and explore the mysteries of science itself and laws from the fact correlation. This paper points out that big data is no mystery, the key to the big data is not in a big data, but in the new thinking. Using new thinking to process the data, is big data method. Domestic recent research on basalt discrimination diagram results using the method of big data is an excellent research paradigm. This paper points out that the study of big data field is very wide, the prospect of big data research is nearly limitless. This paper calls for the academia to give more attention and input to the big data.