Recently, the study on petroleum geology in the Tarim Basin made a good progress, and some important contributions were as follows. 1) The Kuqa foreland basin was rich in both natural gas and oil. 2) The oil and gas in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the cratonic areas were controlled by reservoirs, with oil enriching in clinoform belts. 3) The Donghe sandstones surrounding Hadeson possessed the geological conditions to form a large-scale stratigraphic oil-gas pool. 4) The lithologic oil-gas pool developed in the Silurian in central Tarim area. 5) The Kezilesu Group in age of Early Cretaceous was a main target layer in northern marginal area of the Kashi Depression, SW Tarim. 6) There was a large potential of the crude oil cracking gas in eastern Tarim. In the recent future, the oil-gas exploration should focus our attention on the following three aspects. 1) The predicted exploration in the Wensu Rise and its surrounding regions should carry out. 2) Three economic regions, namely, the Ordovician buried hills in Lunnan, the multiple target layers in central Tarim and the Carboniferous strata near Hadeson, should be evaluated actively. 3) The further geological survey in the west part of SW Tarim, the Yingmaili area in west part of northern Tarim and east-southeast Tarim should come to the agenda.