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地质科学  1995, Vol. Issue (4): 414-422    DOI:
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关于生物矿物的某些问题
戴永定, 刘铁兵, 沈继英
中国科学院地质研究所 北京 100029
SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT BIOMINERAL
Dai Yongding, Liu Tiebing, Shen Jiying
Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029
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摘要 生物矿物的形成阶段可分非晶质、过渡、成熟和石化4个阶段。生物矿物在门类由低到高,时代由新到老的分布上存在着一种演化趋向,硫化物→硫酸盐→铁锰氧化物→非晶硅→钙白云石→碳磷灰石→镁方解石→文石→方解石这种演化趋向也重演于个体发育阶段,反映在示序接触关系中。古代原始镁方解石可以根据现实主义原则、铁方解石交代作用、微量元素和同位素成分加以识别。
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戴永定
刘铁兵
沈继英
关键词生物矿物   形成阶段   门类分布   地史演化   生成顺序     
Abstract: Biomineral is a kind of mineral which is formed inside or outside the organism body through physiological activities, such as metabolism. The formation of biominerals can be divided into four genetic stages:amorphous, intermediate, matured and fossilized.For example, in skeleton of vertebrate, matured dahllite is transformed from amorphous hydrated calcium phosphate, through intermediate Lydrated brushite or octocaphosphate, and eventually into fossilized francolite. But the matured biominerals in ectoshell of the recent Lingula is francolite, instead of dahllite. The amorphous silica in test of diatom lasts until fossilized stage.Sulfides only occur in anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria, thermophilic and acidophilic reducing thiobacteria. The latter had appeared early in Hadean Era. Sulphates mainly occur in aerobic oxidizing thiobacteria and anaerobic pliotosynthetic thiobacteria. The latter had appeared in the Early Archaeozoic Era. Iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides mainly occur in iron bacteria, which appeared at the beginning of the Proterozoic Era or earlier. Amorphous silica mainly occurs in Protoctista and bacteria, and probably appeared in the Proterozoic Era or earlier.Calcium dolomite mostly occurs in cyanobacteria and also appeared in the Proterozoic Era. Carbonate apatite occurs in Vertebrata, Conodontochordata, Polychaeta,Inarticulata and Actinomyceta. The latter had appeared at the beginning of the Late Sinian. Magnesium calcite mainly occurs in most taxa of Invertebrates and appeared at the middle of the Late Sinian. The ancient original Mg calcite can be recognized on the basis of actualism principle, ferroan calcite replacement, trace elements and isotope composition. Aragonite mainly occurs in Mollusca and chlorophyta, and also appeared in polychaete tube at the middle of the Late Sinian. Calcite mainly occurs in Articulata and appeared at the middle of the Early Cambrian.From lower to higher in organismic taxon, from older to younger in geohistory,the evolutionary trend of biominerals is sulphidtes→sulphates→ iron oxides and hydroxides→ amorphous silica→ Ca dolomite→ carbonate apatite→Mg calcite→ aragonite→calcite.According to the biogenetic law, the geohistoric evolutionary trend of biominerals also simply repeats at the ontogenetic stages and reflects in the genesis sequence of biomineral. For instance, aragonite transform into calcite in the ectostracum of living Turbomarmoratus; a thin sheet of aragonite exists in the contact between Mg calcitic teeth and organic substrata in Nautilus; the antler-shaped spicules in Pyura bradleyi consist of amorphous calcium phosphate in the central core and amorphous calcium carbonate in the outer layer; the aragonitic or Mg calcitic ecdoshell of Sclerospongia embraces monoactin spicules of amorphous silica; the teeth of chiton are composed of magnetitic ectostracum, lipidocrocitic mesostracum and dahllitic central core; the amorphous silica fills the interstice between crystals of goethite in limpet teeth; the isomorphous spore of radiolaria with test of the amorphous silica contains celestitic crystals in vacuoles etc.
Key wordsBiominerals   Genetic stages   Taxon distribution   Geohistory evolution   Genesis sequence   
收稿日期: 1994-05-13;
引用本文:   
戴永定,刘铁兵,沈继英. 1995, 关于生物矿物的某些问题. 地质科学, (4): 414-422.
Dai Yongding,Liu Tiebing,Shen Jiying. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT BIOMINERAL[J]. Chinese Journal of Geology, 1995, (4): 414-422.
 
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